The Planet Jupiter – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Jupiter

The Planet Jupiter - Planets In Our Solar SystemJupiter is the planet in the fifth position from the sun. This is the massive and huge planet in the solar system. It is filled with hydrogen and helium. It has a different trace of gases.  The planet Jupiter has dozens of moons that it appears to be a miniature solar system and it has a strong magnetic field. There is a great red spot in Jupiter.

  • Orbit:9 Earth years
  • Diameter: 86,881 miles (139,822 km)
  • Day:8 earth hours

The Planet Jupiter is the largest planet, named in Roman mythology after the king of the gods. Jupiter helped in revolutionising as Galileo discovered four large moons of Jupiter’s, the Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto, representing as Galilean moons. These celestial bodies were circling Jupiter and not the earth.

Jupiter is 80 times massive. The atmosphere is identical as the sun comprising of helium and hydrogen, besides it has four large moons and also smaller moons around it in the orbit that Jupiter maintains an individual miniature solar system. The volume can hold nearly 1300 Earth’s.

The planet Jupiter bands are colourful arranged in light zones and dark belts travelling 400 mph. There are white clouds made of frozen ammonia crystals and the darker clouds include chemicals appearing in the belts. Blue clouds are visible at deepest levels, while the cloud stripes keep changing.

The Great Red Spot

The great spot in Red colour is the extraordinary feature; a hurricane-like giant storm seen for over 300 years. This red spot is the widest and thrice the earth’s diameter, while its edge spins around the centre counterclockwise at 225mph (360kph) speed. The storm colour varies from red to brown due to the ammonia crystals featuring phosphorous and sulphur in the Jupiter’s clouds. However, the spot shrinks and grows each time, while sometimes it appears to completely fade.

The magnetic field of Jupiter is the strongest having 20,000 times of Earth’s strength. It traps in its intense electrons belt the electrically charged particles, while the other electrically charged particles keep blasting the rings and moons of the planet with a radiation level over 1000 times. Jupiter’s magnetosphere comprises of particles and fields’ swelling out nearly 600,000 to 2 million miles towards the Sun and its tail extends to 600 million miles behind the Jupiter.

Jupiter spins faster on its axis taking under 10 hours to complete a turn in comparison to the Earth taking 24 hours. This rapid spin makes Jupiter flatten at the poles and bulge at the equator. Radio waves of Jupiter are strong to detect on earth when the Jupiter’s large moon, lo, passes the magnetic field of Jupiter in certain regions.

The Planet Mars – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Mars

The Planet Mars - Planets In Our Solar SystemPlanet number four in the solar system is the Planet Mars. Mars is a cold and dusty place with the nickname “The Red Planet” due to the presence of iron oxide in the dust. The Martian territory is similar to the terrain of Earth with valleys and mountains. Mars receives some snowfall and has water in the form of ice. Due to all this, scientists believe that the planet must have been warm and wet once before it became the cold and desert-like planet it is today.

  • Orbit: 687 days on Earth
  • Diameter: 4,217 miles (6,787 km)
  • Day: Slightly more than one Earth day (6,787 km)

The planet Mars is named after the Roman god of war. In actuality, Romans copied from the Greeks who had named it as Ares, due to its colour. Other civilisations that have seen mars have also given it colours based on its colour, namely Her Desher (The Red One) by the Egyptians and The Fire Star by the Chinese.

This planet contains both deepest valley and the highest mountain in the solar system. The Valles Marineris valley system is as deep as 6 miles and has a width of around 2,500 miles, while the Olympus Mons have a height of 17 miles.

The Martian atmosphere is too thin making it impossible for liquid water to exist for any length of time. However, there is a belief that the planet may have supported life previously and scientists continue to search for any signs of life in the past.

Volcanoes

Mars has the largest volcanoes and they are shield volcanoes. They were created by the flowing of erupted lava for long distances before it solidified. The planet Mars has other volcanic landforms such as small steep cones and plain’s that are coated in hardened lava. Some minor volcanic eruptions might still occur on the planet even today.

The Planet Mars has numerous valleys, gullies and channels giving rises to the suggestion that liquid water may have existed on the planet sometime in the past. Some of these channels are 60 miles wide and around 1200 miles long. Water may still be found in some underground rocks and cracks.

The Martian landscape also contains numerous craters and theses vary based on how old that particular surface is. The southern hemisphere is extremely old with many craters, while the northern hemisphere is relatively new and has fewer craters. Sometimes lava erupting from volcanic eruptions cover up the old craters and thus, alter the landform.

The Planet Earth – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Earth

The Planet Earth - Planets In Our Solar SystemThe Planet Earth represents a water world and from the sun it is the third planet. It features two-thirds covered by ocean. The atmosphere of the earth alone harbours life and is opulent in oxygen and nitrogen that is life-sustaining. The surface of the earth rotates on its axis at 1532 feet per second that is a bit over 1000 mph at the equator. This planet zips at over 18 miles (29 km) per sec around the sun.

  • Orbit:24 days
  • Diameter:7,926 miles (12,760 km)
  • Day:23 hours, 56 minutes

The Planet Earth, the planet is well-known to support an atmosphere with oceans of liquid water on the surface and free oxygen. Earth belongs to the terrestrial planets such as Mercury, Venus and Mars. The gravity points our planet centre, as earth spins, while a centrifugal force pushes it outward. However, as the gravity force is opposing acting perpendicular to the earth axis and it is tilted, the centrifugal force is not opposed to the gravity at the equator. This imbalance makes the gravity push more masses of water and the earth appears with a bulge. The globe’s circumference, at the equator, is 24,901 miles (40,075kms). This is the reason that a person weighs less than while standing at any of the poles.

You assume to be standing still, but actually, you are moving. Based on the globe, you may be spinning more than 1,000 miles per hour. However, people move fastest on the equator, while someone standing on the South or North Pole will stand still.

The planet Earth moves 67,000 miles around the Sun that is it covers 107,826 km per hour. Earth is nearly 4.54 billion years old calculated by the researchers. It is the oldest rocks.

The Rock Cycle

Earth is recycled. The rock cycle of the earth transforms igneous rocks into sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks and it is back again. It is not a perfect cycle, but the basics are that Magma in the earth hardens into rock, while the rock is uplifted in the Tectonic process to the surface and erosion takes off a little. These tiny bits get buried as it is deposited and pressure compacts into sedimentary rocks. As the sedimentary rocks go deeper and get buried that they become metamorphic rocks under the heat and pressure.

The hottest spot is El Azizia, Libya with 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 degrees Celsius) in 1993 on September 13, observed NASA Observatory. the coldest is in Antarctica and the lowest temperature on earth is recorded in Russia’s Vostok Station showing a -128.6 degrees in 1983, July 21.

The Planet Venus – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Venus

The Planet Venus - Planets In Our Solar SystemThe Planet Venus is the second planet in the solar system, in between Mercury and Venus. The size and structure of the planet are similar to the Earth. However, the planet possesses a lethal atmosphere. The planet records the highest temperature in the solar system, due to the high level of greenhouse gases in its atmosphere. Apart from this, the pressure on the planet’s surface would crush a person.

  • Orbit: 225 Earth days
  • Diameter: 7,521 miles (12, 104 km)
  • Day: 241 Earth days

The planet Venus is named after the Roman goddess of beauty and love. It is the only planet named after a female deity. This may be due to the fact that shines the brightest among the planets known to the ancient astronomers.

In ancient times, Venus was thought as two different stars, namely the morning and the evening star. As a result of being the brightest object in the sky after the sun and the moon, Venus has given rise to many UFO reports.

The Surface

The surface of the planet Venus is extremely dry. Ultraviolet rays from the sun evaporated the water on the planet during its evolution. Presently as a result of its atmosphere, there is no liquid water present on the planet.  Round two-thirds of the surface of the planet are covered by plains married with volcanoes hat are still active. Lava flow carves canals that are more than 3,000 miles in length, making them the longest among the other known planets.

One-third of the Venus landscape is covered by six mountainous regions. One of the mountain ranges is called Maxwell and is 540 miles long and 7 miles high. Apart from this, the planet also has surface features that are completely different from Earth. The planet has coronae (crowns) ranging from 95 miles to 360 miles. Scientists theorise that hot material underneath the crust rises up and warp the land surface. It also has tiles (tesserae) that have valleys and ridges in different directions.

Venus and Earth are considered to be twin planets as a result of their similarities in size, composition, mass, gravity and density. Another similarity is the magnetic field generate by the planet. As a result of its slow rotation speed, the metal core of the planet can generate a magnetic field.

Venus rotates in the opposite direction when compared to most other planets. The result is that on Venus, the sun sets in the east and rises in the west.

The Planet Mercury – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Mercury

The Planet Mercury - Planets In Our Solar SystemThe Planet Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun. With virtually no atmosphere, the planet has some really harsh conditions with temperatures rising to 840 degrees Fahrenheit during daytime and fall to hundreds of degrees on the negative scale during night. Mercury has almost no atmosphere that can absorb meteor impacts and hence, its surface is strewn with craters.

  • Orbit: 88 Earth Days
  • Diameter:3,031 miles (4,878 km)
  • Day:6 Earth days

The present name given to the planet Mercury is that of the Roman messenger god. This is due to the fact that it circles the sun faster than the other planets. The planet has been named differently by different civilisations. The Sumerians knew about this planet around 5,000 years ago and they associated it with their god writing, Nabu. Mercury is known as a morning star as well as an evening star. However, Greek astronomers knew that both names referred to the same astronomical body.

Smallest Planet

Mercury is the smallest of all planets. Physically, it is only slightly bigger than Earth’s moon. Due to the absence of a significant atmosphere, the planet faces some of the worst temperatures in the solar system and also is hit by asteroids and meteors. Around 4 billion years ago, Mercury was struck by an asteroid that was roughly 60 miles. The impact was equal to the explosion of a trillion one megaton bombs. The resulting crater is today known as Caloris Basin. It is believed that a similar impact may have resulted in the odd spin that the planet follows presently.

Despite being the closest to the sun, water ice has been discovered in craters around its north pole. Certain regions may be permanently shaded from the sun’s heat aiding in the formation of water ice. The southern orbit has also contained ice, but this has not been validated by scientists yet.

The planet Mercury is the second most dense planet after Earth. It is a core of around 2,200 to 2,400 miles in width. The outer shell of the planet is only 300 – 400 miles thick. This fact is a mystery for scientists till date.

It was recently discovered that the planet Mercury possessed a magnetic field. Due to its slow rotation speed (59 Earth days), the planet was not expected to possess one. The presence of such a magnetic field suggests that its core may still be molten, although solar winds may dampen some of the magnetic field emanating from the planet.