The Planet Uranus – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Uranus

The Planet Uranus - Planets In Our Solar SystemThe Planet Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun. It has the distinction of being the only planet with an equator that is at a right angle from its orbit. Effectively, the planet orbits sideways. Astronomers believe that is due to Uranus colliding with another object long ago. The tilt is responsible for extreme seasons. Sometimes these seasons last for more than 20 years and the sun beating down on one pole for close to 84 Earth years.

  • Orbit: 84 Earth years
  • Diameter: 31, 763 miles (51, 120 km)
  • Day: 18 Earth hours

The planet Uranus was formally discovered in 1781 by William Herschel. Though it was observed long ago, it was long mistaken to be a star as a result of its slow orbit and dimness. The dimness associated with the planet is due to the methane present in its atmosphere. The planet has many moons and also faint rings.

Uranus is named after the Greek god of the sky, Ouranos and is the only planet to be named after a Greek god. Before this particular name was decided upon, several names were proposed such as Hypercronius (“above Saturn”), Minerva, Herschel and even Georgium Sidus. The name for this planet was later finalised by the German astronomer, Johann Bode.

Magnetic Poles

The magnetic poles of planets are typically aligned with their axis of rotation. Uranus exhibits an exception with its magnetic field being tipped by almost 60 degrees from its axis of rotation. Furthermore, it has been found that the strength of the magnetic field is more at the surface near the northern hemisphere than that at the southern hemisphere.

The composition of the planet Uranus is estimated as 25% rock, 5-15% helium and hydrogen and 60-70% ice. Uranus’ core is made of iron and magnesium silicate and its mantle is made of water, methane and ammonia ices. Uranus has seasons that last 21 years on an average. However, the extreme tilt of its axis gives rise to unusual weather. When sunlight reaches some areas for the first time after some years, this heats the atmosphere and causes huge storms. On the other hand, when it was discovered in 1986 by Voyager 2, it had only 10 clouds and was dubbed ‘the most boring planet’.

Uranus possesses two sets of rings. The inner set is comprised of narrow and dark rings while the other set has two distant rings that are coloured red and blue. As of now, as much as 27 rings have been seen around Uranus.

The Planet Saturn – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Saturn

The Planet Saturn - Planets In Our Solar SystemSaturn from the sun is the sixth planet and is renowned for its rings. Initially, Galileo thought it had three parts, unknowing the fact that the planet Saturn was a planet with rings. After 40 years, it came to light that the rings were made of rock and ice. This is a gaseous plant comprising of helium and hydrogen.

  • Orbit:5 Earth years
  • Diameter:74,900 miles (120,500 km)
  • Day:About 10.5 Earth hours

The Planet Saturn in the solar system is the second largest planet. Saturn acquired the Roman name for Cronus, as in Greek mythology as the lord of the Titans. Saturn is an English root word “Saturday.”

From Earth, Saturn is the farthest planet and is visible to the naked eye, but only through a telescope, the rings of this plant can be seen.  Jupiter, Neptune and Uranus also have rings, but of course, the Saturn rings are most extraordinary.

Saturn is a gas giant comprising of hydrogen and helium. It is immense to hold over 760 Earth’s and is massive than other planet but for Jupiter, approximately 95 times the mass of the Earth. Conversely, Saturn has the least density of other planets and is less dense than water.

Saturn’s Atmosphere

The atmosphere of Saturn has gold and yellow bands and is the result due to upper atmosphere super-fast winds that reach around its equator up to 1100 mph (1800km/h) in combination with heat from the interior of the planet.

Saturn completes one rotation in every 10-and-a-half hours. This spinning causes the bulge to Saturn at its equator and at its poles it appears flat. The planet is wider by 8,000 miles (13,000 kilometres) at its equator than the poles. Saturn has northern and southern lights and this is due to sun particles.

The atmospheric composition comprises of molecular hydrogen of 96.3 %, helium of 3.25% and small amounts of ethane, ammonia, methane, water ice aerosols, hydrogen deuteride, ammonia ice aerosols and ammonia hydrosulfide aerosols.

The magnetic field of the planet Saturn is nearly 578 times powerful than the Earth’s. Saturn has a robust rocky and iron material enveloped in the outer core and this is composed of methane, ammonia and water.  The next layer features liquid metallic hydrogen in a compressed state with viscous hydrogen and helium. The helium and hydrogen become gaseous near the surface of the planet and merges with the atmosphere.

Saturn has nearly 62 moons and most moons are named after Titans, their descendants, Gallic, Inuit and Norse myths.  These moons exhibit bizarre features.  Though it is identified to have many moons, this system has more small moons being created and destroyed constantly.

The Planet Jupiter – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Jupiter

The Planet Jupiter - Planets In Our Solar SystemJupiter is the planet in the fifth position from the sun. This is the massive and huge planet in the solar system. It is filled with hydrogen and helium. It has a different trace of gases.  The planet Jupiter has dozens of moons that it appears to be a miniature solar system and it has a strong magnetic field. There is a great red spot in Jupiter.

  • Orbit:9 Earth years
  • Diameter: 86,881 miles (139,822 km)
  • Day:8 earth hours

The Planet Jupiter is the largest planet, named in Roman mythology after the king of the gods. Jupiter helped in revolutionising as Galileo discovered four large moons of Jupiter’s, the Io, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto, representing as Galilean moons. These celestial bodies were circling Jupiter and not the earth.

Jupiter is 80 times massive. The atmosphere is identical as the sun comprising of helium and hydrogen, besides it has four large moons and also smaller moons around it in the orbit that Jupiter maintains an individual miniature solar system. The volume can hold nearly 1300 Earth’s.

The planet Jupiter bands are colourful arranged in light zones and dark belts travelling 400 mph. There are white clouds made of frozen ammonia crystals and the darker clouds include chemicals appearing in the belts. Blue clouds are visible at deepest levels, while the cloud stripes keep changing.

The Great Red Spot

The great spot in Red colour is the extraordinary feature; a hurricane-like giant storm seen for over 300 years. This red spot is the widest and thrice the earth’s diameter, while its edge spins around the centre counterclockwise at 225mph (360kph) speed. The storm colour varies from red to brown due to the ammonia crystals featuring phosphorous and sulphur in the Jupiter’s clouds. However, the spot shrinks and grows each time, while sometimes it appears to completely fade.

The magnetic field of Jupiter is the strongest having 20,000 times of Earth’s strength. It traps in its intense electrons belt the electrically charged particles, while the other electrically charged particles keep blasting the rings and moons of the planet with a radiation level over 1000 times. Jupiter’s magnetosphere comprises of particles and fields’ swelling out nearly 600,000 to 2 million miles towards the Sun and its tail extends to 600 million miles behind the Jupiter.

Jupiter spins faster on its axis taking under 10 hours to complete a turn in comparison to the Earth taking 24 hours. This rapid spin makes Jupiter flatten at the poles and bulge at the equator. Radio waves of Jupiter are strong to detect on earth when the Jupiter’s large moon, lo, passes the magnetic field of Jupiter in certain regions.

The Planet Mars – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Mars

The Planet Mars - Planets In Our Solar SystemPlanet number four in the solar system is the Planet Mars. Mars is a cold and dusty place with the nickname “The Red Planet” due to the presence of iron oxide in the dust. The Martian territory is similar to the terrain of Earth with valleys and mountains. Mars receives some snowfall and has water in the form of ice. Due to all this, scientists believe that the planet must have been warm and wet once before it became the cold and desert-like planet it is today.

  • Orbit: 687 days on Earth
  • Diameter: 4,217 miles (6,787 km)
  • Day: Slightly more than one Earth day (6,787 km)

The planet Mars is named after the Roman god of war. In actuality, Romans copied from the Greeks who had named it as Ares, due to its colour. Other civilisations that have seen mars have also given it colours based on its colour, namely Her Desher (The Red One) by the Egyptians and The Fire Star by the Chinese.

This planet contains both deepest valley and the highest mountain in the solar system. The Valles Marineris valley system is as deep as 6 miles and has a width of around 2,500 miles, while the Olympus Mons have a height of 17 miles.

The Martian atmosphere is too thin making it impossible for liquid water to exist for any length of time. However, there is a belief that the planet may have supported life previously and scientists continue to search for any signs of life in the past.

Volcanoes

Mars has the largest volcanoes and they are shield volcanoes. They were created by the flowing of erupted lava for long distances before it solidified. The planet Mars has other volcanic landforms such as small steep cones and plain’s that are coated in hardened lava. Some minor volcanic eruptions might still occur on the planet even today.

The Planet Mars has numerous valleys, gullies and channels giving rises to the suggestion that liquid water may have existed on the planet sometime in the past. Some of these channels are 60 miles wide and around 1200 miles long. Water may still be found in some underground rocks and cracks.

The Martian landscape also contains numerous craters and theses vary based on how old that particular surface is. The southern hemisphere is extremely old with many craters, while the northern hemisphere is relatively new and has fewer craters. Sometimes lava erupting from volcanic eruptions cover up the old craters and thus, alter the landform.

The Planet Earth – Planets In Our Solar System

Planet Earth

The Planet Earth - Planets In Our Solar SystemThe Planet Earth represents a water world and from the sun it is the third planet. It features two-thirds covered by ocean. The atmosphere of the earth alone harbours life and is opulent in oxygen and nitrogen that is life-sustaining. The surface of the earth rotates on its axis at 1532 feet per second that is a bit over 1000 mph at the equator. This planet zips at over 18 miles (29 km) per sec around the sun.

  • Orbit:24 days
  • Diameter:7,926 miles (12,760 km)
  • Day:23 hours, 56 minutes

The Planet Earth, the planet is well-known to support an atmosphere with oceans of liquid water on the surface and free oxygen. Earth belongs to the terrestrial planets such as Mercury, Venus and Mars. The gravity points our planet centre, as earth spins, while a centrifugal force pushes it outward. However, as the gravity force is opposing acting perpendicular to the earth axis and it is tilted, the centrifugal force is not opposed to the gravity at the equator. This imbalance makes the gravity push more masses of water and the earth appears with a bulge. The globe’s circumference, at the equator, is 24,901 miles (40,075kms). This is the reason that a person weighs less than while standing at any of the poles.

You assume to be standing still, but actually, you are moving. Based on the globe, you may be spinning more than 1,000 miles per hour. However, people move fastest on the equator, while someone standing on the South or North Pole will stand still.

The planet Earth moves 67,000 miles around the Sun that is it covers 107,826 km per hour. Earth is nearly 4.54 billion years old calculated by the researchers. It is the oldest rocks.

The Rock Cycle

Earth is recycled. The rock cycle of the earth transforms igneous rocks into sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks and it is back again. It is not a perfect cycle, but the basics are that Magma in the earth hardens into rock, while the rock is uplifted in the Tectonic process to the surface and erosion takes off a little. These tiny bits get buried as it is deposited and pressure compacts into sedimentary rocks. As the sedimentary rocks go deeper and get buried that they become metamorphic rocks under the heat and pressure.

The hottest spot is El Azizia, Libya with 136 degrees Fahrenheit (57.8 degrees Celsius) in 1993 on September 13, observed NASA Observatory. the coldest is in Antarctica and the lowest temperature on earth is recorded in Russia’s Vostok Station showing a -128.6 degrees in 1983, July 21.